Glossary

Advanced Macular Degeneration – The loss of central vision in one or both eyes resulting from damage to the macula, a small spot near the center of the retina.  

Amsler grid – A grid of straight lines resembling graph paper. A dot is printed in the center of the grid.  An Amsler grid is used to test for the onset of, and progression of, macular degeneration. Click here for the Amsler Grid >>

Antioxidants – Substances, such as vitamin E and C, that reduce free radical damage thus helping to protect cells, including those found in the eye.*  

AREDS – The Age-Related Eye Disease Study was a landmark clinical study completed by the National Eye Institute (NEI) in 2001 which proved that taking a high-potency antioxidant and zinc supplement reduced the risk of progression in people with moderate-to-advanced Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD).*  AREDS is also the name used to describe vitamins that contain this antioxidant and zinc formula.

AREDS2 – The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 was the second landmark clinical study completed by the National Eye Institute (NEI) in 2013 that built upon the results from the original 2001 AREDS study. Based on the results of AREDS2, the NEI recommended an update to the original AREDS antioxidant and zinc formula.

Atrophic macular degeneration – Characterized as "dry" AMD, it is a less aggressive and less damaging form of macular degeneration, developing slowly in the beginning.

Beta-carotene – A member of the carotenoid family of vitamins found in vegetables, such as carrots. Beta-carotene may be beneficial to eye health.*

Cataract – An opacity or cloudiness of the lens in the eye causing slow, progressive degradation of vision.

Central vision – The part of your vision that allows you to see objects that are straight ahead.

Choroidal neovascularization – Characterized as "wet" AMD, it is caused when abnormal blood vessels form in the macula, and leak blood and fluids into the retina.

Drusen – Yellowish spots, or deposits, that form beneath the retina; the presence of medium-to-large drusen may be a sign of AMD.   

Dry AMD – Also known as atrophic macular degeneration, dry AMD is caused by aging and thinning of eye tissues and is characterized by the presence of yellow spots, known as “drusen,” in the macula.  With dry AMD, vision gets worse over time.   

Exudative macular degeneration – Another name for wet macular degeneration.

Hemorrhagic macular degeneration – Wet AMD that involves bleeding in the retina.

Lutein – A carotenoid that is found in the lens and retina, primarily in the macula. This important antioxidant acts as a blue-light filter, which is an important function in supporting eye health.*

Macula – That part of the retina that is responsible for central vision and seeing fine detail. The macula is located in the center of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The retina instantly converts light, or an image, into electrical impulses. The retina then sends these impulses, or nerve signals, to the brain.

National Eye Institute (NEI) – Part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the NEI conducts research on treating and preventing diseases that affect the eye or vision.  

Ocular – Of, or pertaining to, the eye.

Ophthalmologist – A physician medically trained in eye and vision care who can diagnose and treat complicated eye issues, perform surgeries such as Lasik and repair damage in the retina, and offer complete eye care services.  

Optometrist – A healthcare professional who provides primary vision care, which includes diagnosing vision problems, prescribing glasses and medications, and testing for eye diseases and conditions.    

Oxidation – A chemical reaction that occurs in the body, releasing free-radical particles that can be damaging to different tissues in the body, including to the eyes.

Peripheral vision – Your side or off-center vision.

Retina – The layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and receives the image formed by the lens.

Retina specialist – An ophthalmologist specializing in diseases of the retina.

Subretinal neovascularization – The growth of abnormal blood vessels under the retina that occurs with wet AMD.

Supplements – Products containing vitamins, minerals and other beneficial nutrients that are intended to augment levels found in your diet.*

Vitamin C – An antioxidant found in citrus or colorful fruits and vegetables that is vital to helping protect cells (including those in the eyes) from free radicals and oxidative damage.*  

Vitamin E – An essential antioxidant found in oils, nuts, and other foods which, like Vitamin C, your body needs to protect eye health.*

Wet AMD – Also know as exudative macular degeneration, wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels form and leak blood and fluid beneath retina, causing it to distort or scar.  Wet AMD progresses far more rapidly than dry AMD, with more severe effects.  

Zeaxanthin – A carotenoid found in fruits and vegetables.  Zeaxanthin concentrates in the macula, where it helps protect against blue light and oxidative damage.*

Zinc – A trace element that influences cell metabolism through a variety of mechanisms and plays an integral role in maintaining normal ocular function.*  

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.